The Baby Brain Language Connection – Neuroscience Peeks In On The Beginnings Of Speech And Vocabulary

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One-year-old Dylan said his first words, “I love,” shortly after his first birthday. (Say it with me: Awwww.) He was right on track developmentally. According to the First Words Project at Florida State University, parents report that 12-month-olds say from one to three words. This milestone is as exciting as it is unpredictable; nobody knows just when baby’s first words will tumble out, or exactly what they’ll be.

New neuroscience research is providing insight that has implications regarding our understanding of language learning throughout childhood. According to breakthrough research from the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences (I-LABS) at the University of Washington, Dylan’s brain was probably practicing the sounds of his first words for months before he made his heart-melting statement.

Speech study

A new study released this past July suggests that infants’ brains are laying groundwork for early words and phrases as early as 7 months of age. In the study, researchers use state-of-the-art brain scanning called magnetoencephalography (said to be noninvasive and completely safe for infants) to record brain activity in the cerebellum, the part of the brain responsible for planning and coordinating the movements required for speech.

Brain activation patterns in 7-month-olds and 11-month-olds indicate that babies’ brains are hard at work on speech perception and speech movements long before the little munchkins say their first word. 

The study is the first major published research to come out of I-LABS’ Ready Mind Project, established to advance research in six key areas: growing brain; critical periods of learning; diversity and bilingualism; behavioral transitions and milestones; early learning education; and early learning technology.

This research helps support school readiness in several important ways, says I-LABS co-director Patricia K. Kuhl, PhD, a professor of speech and hearing sciences. “We are working to understand the sequence of events that helps children transition from sounds, to words, to sentences, and then to reading. We’re striving to understand the step-by-step changes in the brain that make the child ‘ready’ for reading.”

The findings suggest that so-called “parentese” – that ubiquitous, sugar-coated, exaggerated speech we often slip into when we talk to infants (“Hoooow’s my liiittle baaaaaaaayyyyybeeee toooodaaay?”) – can benefit their speech perception at a time when new brains are rehearsing mechanics for speech. This doesn’t mean using baby talk or made-up words. It means speaking distinctly yet slowly to help babies understand.

What doesn’t work

Other new research in early learning holds some surprises for parents, too. “The critical phase for learning sounds happens in the second half of a baby’s first year,” says Sarah Roseberry Lytle, PhD, I-LABS director of outreach.

If babies’ brains are particularly receptive to speech sounds during this developmental window, then hearing certain words and phrases over and over should boost language skills, and language-focused educational programming should be a baby-brain boon, right? Except it isn’t. Research shows that “educational” videos and television shows designed to boost infant speech development just don’t.

According to research by Kuhl, babies’ brains can pick up phonemes (distinct sounds that form words, such as “aw” or “er”) in their native language by 6 to 9 months of age. Creators of educational DVDs, including the Baby Einstein series, parlayed this research into educational programming that exposed infants to repeated words and phrases with the intent of strengthening neural pathways related to speech and boosting language recognition and acquisition.

As it turns out, learning language isn’t quite that simple – and the DVD experiment didn’t work. In fact, some studies show that spending more time in front of educational DVDs actually hurts babies’ language skills. In one study, each hour per day of viewing baby DVDs was associated with a 17-point drop in word recognition for babies 8–16 months old.

The study used the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) – an index of 89 simple words that babies may recognize and say – to measure language skills in infants and toddlers. The CDI is widely accepted as a benchmark for early language acquisition and has been translated and used around the world.

In other words, spending an additional seven hours per week parked in front of an “educational” DVD robbed six to eight words from a child’s vocabulary. That’s significant considering the average 11-month-old boy only recognizes 16 CDI words according to NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children by Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman.

Brainbuilding

So why do language-focused baby DVDs – even ones based on research and noble intentions – fail to deliver? According to NurtureShock, it may be because babies learn speech partially by reading lips, and most educational programming features disembodied voice-overs that don’t allow infants to pair the auditory signal with the appropriate facial cue.

At 7 months old, babies can begin to segment words they hear into phonemes, forming the building blocks of language. The caveat: they can’t perform this feat unless they’re looking at a face. If they hear a word while gazing at an abstract, it sounds like so much gibberish … hearing the word “dog” while looking at an image of a dog has less value than hearing and watching a parent say the word.

Talking to your baby face to face is vital and has potential long-term benefits regarding your baby’s acquisition of language as well as later academic success. But it’s not enough just to send a barrage of words in baby’s direction in the parenting equivalent of a one-sided conversation. It’s important to pick up on baby’s cues, too.

Echoing back a child’s vocalizations or picking up and naming an object that a child seems to be gesturing toward helps babies assign meaning to words and move a baby toward fluent speech faster. Researchers from New York University and the National Institutes of Health found that infants of mothers who responded to baby babble were a full six months ahead of those with less responsive moms.

In a Cornell University study, 9-month-olds with mothers who responded to baby babble in a back-and-forth conversational way picked up and mimicked speech sounds faster than babies with less responsive moms. Another study from Cornell found that “object labeling” in infancy – the act of pointing to an object and naming it after a baby’s gaze meets the object – is linked to increased vocabulary in toddlerhood.

To put this research into practice, follow your child’s lead. Observe what your baby is looking at (instead of what he’s trying to say, which is often misinterpreted,  Merryman says) and name it: “That’s the kitty,” or, “See that tree?”

Overzealous parents eager to stack the deck toward, say, a Harvard acceptance letter, take note: Researchers don’t recommend overstimulation. It’s not necessary to be in your baby’s face all day long. But responding and interacting naturally with baby in a conversational way has profound benefits, says Merryman. “Babies don’t need specialized toys or educational programming. They need responsive parents.” 

Malia Jacobson
About Malia Jacobson

Writer Malia Jacobson specializes in health topics.

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